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 South Africa's Independence is Tarnished by Apartheid

 Jan Christiaan Smuts brought the nation into World War II on the Allied side against Nationalist opposition, and South Africa became a charter member of the United Nations in 1945, but he refused to sign the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Apartheid—racial separation—dominated domestic politics as the Nationalists gained power and imposed greater restrictions on Bantus (black Africans), Asians, and Coloreds (in South Africa the term meant any nonwhite person). Black voters were removed from the voter rolls in 1936. Over the next half-century, the nonwhite population of South Africa was forced out of designated white areas. The Group Areas Acts of 1950 and 1986 forced about 1.5 million Africans to move from cities to rural townships, where they lived in abject poverty under repressive laws.

  South Africa declared itself a republic in 1961 and severed its ties with the Commonwealth, which strongly objected to the country's racist policies. The white supremacist National Party, which had first come to power in 1948, would continue its rule for the next three decades.

 In 1960, 70 black protesters were killed during a peaceful demonstration in Sharpesville. The African National Congress (ANC), the principal antiapartheid organization, was banned that year, and in 1964 its leader, Nelson Mandela, was sentenced to life imprisonment. Black protests against apartheid grew stronger and more violent. In 1976, an uprising in the black township of Soweto spread to other black townships and left 600 dead. Beginning in the 1960s, international opposition to apartheid intensified. The UN imposed sanctions, and many countries divested their South African holdings.

 Apartheid's grip on South Africa began to give way when F. W. de Klerk replaced P. W. Botha as president in 1989. De Klerk removed the ban on the ANC and released its leader, Nelson Mandela, after 27 years of imprisonment. The Inkatha Freedom Party, a black opposition group led by Mangosuthu Buthelezi, which was seen as collaborating with the apartheid system, frequently clashed with the ANC during this period.

   Apartheid is Abolished; Mandela Becomes President

 In 1991, a multiracial forum led by de Klerk and Mandela, the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA), began working on a new constitution. In 1993, an interim constitution was passed, which dismantled apartheid and provided for a multiracial democracy with majority rule. The peaceful transition of South Africa from one of the world's most repressive societies into a democracy is one of the 20th century's most remarkable success stories. Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
The 1994 election, the country's first multiracial one, resulted in a massive victory for Mandela and his ANC. The new government included six ministers from the National Party and three from the Inkatha Freedom Party. A new national constitution was approved and adopted in May 1996.

 In 1997 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, chaired by Desmond Tutu, began hearings regarding human rights violations between 1960 and 1993. The commission promised amnesty to those who confessed their crimes under the apartheid system. In 1998, F. W. de Klerk, P.W. Botha, and leaders of the ANC appeared before the commission, and the nation continued to grapple with its enlightened but often painful and divisive process of national recovery.


 Mbeki Takes Over From Mandela

 Nelson Mandela, whose term as president cemented his reputation as one of the world's most farsighted and magnanimous statesmen, retired in 1999. On June 2, 1999, Thabo Mbeki, the pragmatic deputy president and leader of the ANC, was elected president in a landslide, having already assumed many of Mandela's governing responsibilities. In his first term, Mbeki wrestled with a slumping economy and a skyrocketing crime rate. South Africa, the country with the highest number of HIV-positive people in the world (6.5 million in 2005), has been hampered in fighting the epidemic by its president's highly controversial views.

 Mbeki has denied the link between HIV and AIDS and claimed that the West has exaggerated the epidemic to boost drug profits. The international community as well as most South African leaders, including Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu, have condemned Mbeki's stance. In 2006, 60 international scientists called the government's policies “disastrous and pseudo-scientific.”
As expected, on April 15, 2004, the African National Congress won South Africa's general election in a landslide, taking about 70% of the vote, and Thabo Mbeki was sworn in for a second term.

 In December 2007, African National Committee delegates chose Jacob Zuma as their leader, ousting Mbeki, who had been in control of the party for the last ten years. Zuma was acquitted of rape charges in 2006. In late December, prosecutors reopened corruption charges against Zuma and ordered him to face trial for "various counts of racketeering, money laundering, corruption, and fraud." He was accused of accepting more than $440,000 in bribes in exchange for helping a friend, Schabir Shaik, secure $5 billion in an arms deal and other government contracts. Zuma's lawyers accused Mbeki of trying to sabotage Zuma's political career. A High Court judge dismissed the corruption charges against Zuma in September 2008, saying the government mishandled the prosecution. The judge also criticized President Mbeki for attempting to influence the prosecution of Zuma.


 Motlanthe Serves as "Interim" President; Opposition to the ANC Grows

 Under pressure from leaders the African National Congress (ANC), Mbeki announced he would step down just days after Zuma was cleared. While party leader's cited Mbeki's alleged interference in the corruption case against Zuma, Mbeki's resignation culminated several years of bitter infighting between Zuma and Mbeki, which led to discord in the ANC. On Sep. 25, Parliament elected Kgalema Motlanthe, a labor leader who was imprisoned during apartheid, as president. Zuma must be a member of Parliament before he can be elected president. Parliamentary elections are expected in early 2009.

 On his first day as president, Motlanthe acted to move beyond Mbeki's resistance to using modern and effective methods, such as antirretroviral medicines, to tackle its AIDS crisis by replacing South Africa's health minister, Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who has suggested that garlic, lemon juice, and beetroot could cure AIDS, with Barbara Hogan. "The era of denialism is over," she said. More than 5.7 million South Africans are HIV-positive, the highest number of any country in the world.

  In November, about 6,400 dissident members of the ANC held a convention in Johannesburg and decided to form a new party that will challenge the leadership of the ANC. The delegates, many of whom supported former president Mbeki, expressed dissatisfaction with the leadership of the party, calling it corrupt, authoritarian, and "rotting." In December, the new party, the Congress of the People (COPE), selected former defense minister Mosiuoa Lekota as its president.


 Zuma Assumes the Presidency

 South African's Supreme Court reinstated corruption charges against Zuma in January 2009, saying that a lower court had "overstepped" its authority in dismissing the charges. However, the country's prosecuting authority dropped all charges against Zuma in April, about two weeks before national elections, citing “intolerable abuse” by investigators who were loyal to former president Mbeki. In April's general election, the ruling party, the African National Congress, won overwhelming support, taking 65.9% of the vote, just shy of a two-thirds majority, which is required to change the constitution. Parliament elected Zuma president in May.

  South Africa Government Online

  Services for residents
Birth Pregnancy - Paternity test | Pregnancy test | Prenatal care | Postnatal Care | Terminate Pregnancy

  Birth documents - Register birth | Late birth registration 

  Parenting Child care - Child Immunisation | Child support grant | Register ECD partial care facilities | ECD programme certificate | Foster child grant | Care dependency grant | Protect arrested children | Consult Family Advocate

  Adopt a child - Apply for national adoption | Consent to adoption | Register adoption | Withdraw adoption order | Adopt a child in a convention country | Adopt a child in a non-convention country | Apply for intercountry adoption with local element | Apply for local adoption with intercountry element | Apply for intercountry family adoption | Applying
Foster care
Child maintenance - Maintenance order | Pay maintenance | Change maintenance amount

  Health Application for admission into a mental health Institution
Communicable diseases
Prevent and control communicable diseases

  Social benefits Child support grant
Disability grant
Foster child grant
Care dependency grant
Disability grant
Apply for social relief of distress
Enrol soon on new Grant payment system
Re-register as a grant beneficiary
International social services
War veterans grant
Old age pension
Admission to old age home
Grant in aid

Education and training Application for admission to a public school - Admission to school | Cast your vote at School Governing Body elections | Home schooling | Register with AET centre | Apply for alteration on your matric certificate | Apply for replacement certificate_change of status | Replace your lost or damaged matric certificate | Register as educator

  Tertiary education - Tertiary institution | National Student Financial Aid Scheme(NSFAS) | Evaluate foreign qualifications | 2011 Matric pass rate | Verify   qualifications
Education and training bodies - ETQA service provider accreditation | Register private FET institution | Register Higher Institution

  Relationships Marriage - Marriage certificate | Register customary marriage | Getting married at Home Affairs 

  Domestic violence - Protection order | Contravention of protection order | Warrant of arrest | Set aside a protection order | Shelter homes for abuse victims

  World of work Looking for employment - Employment in the public service | Police reservist
Professional registration - Register as educator | Special registration as a professional scientist | Register as a professional natural scientist | Register as environmental scientist | Appeal against refusal of registration

  Tax - Register as taxpayer | Register as provisional taxpayer | Submit tax returns online | First provisional tax payment | Second provisional tax payment | Third provisional tax payment | Submission of tax return extension | Pay outstanding taxes | Pay interest on provisional tax | Return of income from investments
Employee rights - Refer dispute to CCMA

  Compensation Fund - Claim for occupational injuries or disease | Report occupational disease | Report occupational accident
Uif - Unemployment benefits | Maternity benefits | Adoption benefits | Illness benefits | Dependants benefits

  A place to live Land - Get deeds registry information | Subscribe to deedsweb | LRAD grant | Report land invasion | Application to change names on the South African Geographical Names Council Database

  TV and postal services TV licence
Cancel TV licence
Renew TV licence
Mail delivery
  Driving Driving licence - Learners licence | Temporary driving licence | Driving licence | Renew driving licence | Replace lost driving licence | Professional driving permit | Convert your foreign driver’s licence | Verify SA driving licence

 Register motor vehicle - Register motor vehicle | Deregister motor vehicle | Traffic Register Number | Personalise number plate | Renew motor vehicle licence | Application for certificate duplicate in respect of a motor vehicle | Letter of authority | Change ownership | Refund licence fees | Classify motor vehicle | Relicense motor vehicle
Roadworthiness - Temporary vehicle permit | Roadworthiness certificate

  Travel outside SA Passport or travel document
Advice for South African nationals travelling abroad
Register South Africans abroad
Consular services
  Legalising official documents and end user certificates
Advice to South African nationals in the event a South African is arrested or jailed abroad
Police clearance
Advice to South African Nationals in the event that a South African dies abroad
Give notice of death

  Citizenship Personal identification - Identity document | COP 17 visa exemption | Rectify details in ID | Verify identity online | Change surname of minor | Change name of major | Change address details | change sex description | Determine SA citizenship | Exemption from loss of citizenship | Resume SA citizenship | Renounce SA citizenship | Citizenship by descent | Naturalisation | Retain citizenship | Re issue of an identity document
  Voting - Register to vote | Check name on voters roll | Re-register in new voting district
Information from government Access to information
Public information terminal
Retrieve archival information
  Dealing with the law Report crime - 10111 Emergency   Centre | Report crime | Report crime anonymously | Report missing person | Report abuse of older persons | 419 Scam
Legal matters - Obtain legal advice | Recover debt | Register trust | Maintenance order | Change maintenance amount | Report estate of deceased | Insolvent estate
Firearms - Firearm licence | Renew firearm licence
Victim empowerment - Report police misconduct | Report police failure on domestic violence | Report death in police custody | Report discrimination | Attend parole board hearing | C- Max prison becomes museum

  Retirement and old age Old age pension
War Veterans
Admission To Old Age Home
Register as a community based caregiver for older persons
Registering as a caregiver for older persons
Closing an older persons residential facility 

  End of life Death certificate
Report estate of deceased
Support to next-of-kin-on death abroad

  Services for foreign nationals
Temporary residence Visa
Study permit
Student exchange programme permit
General work permit
Treaty permit
Crew permit (maritime)
Exchange programmes permit
Quota work permit
Exceptional skills work permit
Intra-company transfer work permit
Retired persons permit
Business permit
Medical treatment permit
Relatives permit
Visa research
Official visa
Transit visa
Courtesy visa
Academic sabbaticals
Voluntary or charitable activities
Corporate permit
Diplomatic Visa

  Permanent residence Apply for SA citizenship
Relatives permit
Extraordinary skills permit
Business permit
Five years continuous work permit
Financially independent persons permit
Retired persons permit
Spouse permit
Permit for child (under 18) of citizen
Permit for child over (18) of citizen
Exceptional skills work permit
Refugee permit
Quota work permit

Driving Convert your foreign driver’s licence
Traffic register number

  Services for organisations
Register business or organisation Register personal liability company
Register private company
Register public company
Register company with share capital
Register external company
Register as vehicle manufacturer
Register private higher education institution
Register FET institution
Register medical aid scheme
Register fire protection association
Register a nonprofit organisation
Register old age home
Register financial services cooperative
Register a non-profit company

  Change business or organisation registration Amendments to CC
Convert CC to company

Deregister business Deregister or liquidate CC
Closing an older persons residential facility 

  Tax Company income tax - Register as taxpayer | Register as provisional tax payer | Register for employee tax | Submit tax returns online | Submission of income tax extension | Return for first provisional tax payment | Second provisional tax payment | Third provisional tax payment | Return of general information | Return of income for investment | Pay interest on provisional tax | Pay outstanding taxes | Exemption from income tax | Tax directive fixed percentage | Tax directive directors | Tax directive fixed amount | Tax directive gratuity | Tax deduction directive pension form B | Tax deduction directive pension form A & D | Tax directive retirement annuity | Establish SARS electronic interface | Advance tax rulings
  Vat - Register for VAT | VAT vendor search | Cancel VAT | Register for diesel refund
Custom duties - Register as exporter | Register as importer | Register as manufacturer under AGOA | Register for rebate | Rebate on imported goods for export | Increase customs duty | Reduce customs duty
  Intellectual property Application for the registration of a patent
Registration of Trademark
Application to register a copyright
Register a design

Import Individual or personal goods
General goods
Plants and plant products

  Fish on commercial basis
Fish on recreational basis
Animals and genetic material
Animals for specific purposes
Animals and animal products
Processed meat
Fresh meat
Pathology specimens
Animal vaccines
Petroleum products
Used motor vehicles
Application for trade defence instruments
Import exemption for liquor

  Export Register as exporter
Plant and plant products
Fish on commercial basis
Ostriches and ostrich eggs
Animal embryos and semen
Register veterinary export facilities
Application to export chemicals
  Permits licences and rights Plant production - Test seed samples on request | Test seed for complaints and disputes | ISTA certificates | Plant breeders rights | Variety listing | GMO activities
Fishing - Register fishing vessel | Foreign fishing vessel licence | Local fishing vessel | Fish processing establishment | Commercial fishing right | Application for subsistence and a small scale fishing exemption

  Animal improvement - Register animal identification mark | Transfer animal identification mark | Register as marking operator | Animal genetic material import agent | Import animals and genetic material | Application for the approval of a bull boar or stallion for collection of semen | Renew approval for animal semen collection | Application to export animals embryos ova and semen | Application to register premises as an agricultural centre for the collection of genetic material

  Liquor - Import certificate | Import exemption | Remove imported liquor | Blend liquor imported in bulk | Permission to sell liquor imported in bulk after bottling | Export certificate for liquor
Mining and water - Application for a mining right | Application for prospecting right | Application for a mining permit | Registration for water use

  Petroleum - Petroleum manufacturing licence | Wholesale licence | Site and retail licence
Fertilizers farm feeds agricultural remedies - Group 1 fertilizer | Group 2 fertilizer | Farm feeds and pet food | Import farm feed and pet food | Agricultural remedy | Renew agricultural remedy registration | Renew sterilising plants | Register sterilising plant
Agricultural business management - Register land for keeping buffalo | Register veterinary export facilities

  Communication Unreserved postal service
Reserved postal service

Application for low power sound broadcasting service licence
Commercial broadcasting
Community broadcasting

  Transport Register as driving instructor
Register motor vehicle testing station
Register as vehicle manufacturer
Application for motor trade number and permit

  Labour Labour relations - Refer dispute to CCMA | Determine essential services | Determine maintenance service | Accredit private dispute resolution agency

  Trade unions - Register trade union | Register bargaining council | Register amalgamated bargaining councilargaining council | Establish workplace forum | Notify Nedlac on trade action | CCMA agreement on picketing rule



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